Aceon tablets (2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg)
Name: Aceon tablets (2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg)
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Mechanism of Action: ACEON (perindopril erbumine) Tablets is a pro-drug for perindoprilat, which inhibits ACE in human subjects and animals. The mechanism through which perindoprilat lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily inhibition of ACE activity. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes conversion of the inactive decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent peripheral vasoconstrictor, which stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, and provides negative feedback on renin secretion. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II, leading to decreased vasoconstriction, increased plasma renin activity and decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter results in diuresis and natriuresis and may be associated with a small increase of serum potassium.
ACE is identical to kininase II, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of ACEON Tablets remains to be elucidated.
While the principal mechanism of perindopril in blood pressure reduction is believed to be through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ACE inhibitors have some effect even in apparent low-renin hypertension. Perindopril has been studied in relatively few black patients, usually a low-renin population, and the average response of diastolic blood pressure to perindopril was about half the response seen in nonblacks, a finding consistent with previous experience of other ACE inhibitors.
After administration of perindopril, ACE is inhibited in a dose and blood concentration-related fashion, with the maximal inhibition of 80 to 90% attained by 8 mg persisting for 10 to 12 hours. Twenty-four hour ACE inhibition is about 60% after these doses. The degree of ACE inhibition achieved by a given dose appears to diminish over time (the ID 50 increases). The pressor response to an angiotensin I infusion is reduced by perindopril, but this effect is not as persistent as the effect on ACE; there is about 35% inhibition at 24 hours after a 12 mg dose.
Pharmacokinetics: Oral administration of ACEON (perindopril erbumine) Tablets results in its rapid absorption with peak plasma concentrations occurring at approximately 1 hour. The absolute oral bioavailability of perindopril is about 75%. Following absorption, approximately 30 to 50% of systemically available perindopril is hydrolyzed to its active metabolite, perindoprilat, which has a mean bioavailability of about 25%. Peak plasma concentrations of perindoprilat are attained 3 to 7 hours after perindopril administration. The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract does not affect the rate or extent of absorption of perindopril but reduces bioavailability of perindoprilat by about 35%. (See PRECAUTIONS: Food Interaction .)
With 4, 8 and 16 mg doses of ACEON Tablets, Cmax and AUC of perindopril and perindoprilat increase in a linear and dose-proportional manner following both single oral dosing and at steady state during a once-a-day multiple dosing regimen.
Perindopril exhibits multiexponential pharmacokinetics following oral administration. The mean half-life of perindopril associated with most of its elimination is approximately 0.8 to 1.0 hours. At very low plasma concentrations of perindopril (<3 ng/mL), there is a prolonged terminal elimination half-life, similar to that seen with other ACE inhibitors, that results from slow dissociation of perindopril from plasma/tissue ACE binding sites. Perindopril does not accumulate with a once-a-day multiple dosing regimen. Mean total body clearance of perindopril is 219 to 362 mL/min and its mean renal clearance is 23.3 to 28.6 mL/min.
Perindopril is extensively metabolized following oral administration, with only 4 to 12% of the dose recovered unchanged in the urine. Six metabolites resulting from hydrolysis, glucuronidation and cyclization via dehydration have been identified. These include the active ACE inhibitor, perindoprilat (hydrolyzed perindopril), perindopril and perindoprilat glucuronides, dehydrated perindopril and the diastereoisomers of dehydrated perindoprilat. In humans, hepatic esterase appears to be responsible for the hydrolysis of perindopril.
The active metabolite, perindoprilat, also exhibits multiexponential pharmacokinetics following the oral administration of ACEON Tablets. Formation of perindoprilat is gradual with peak plasma concentrations occurring between 3 and 7 hours. The subsequent decline in plasma concentration shows an apparent mean half-life of 3 to 10 hours for the majority of the elimination, with a prolonged terminal elimination half-life of 30 to 120 hours resulting from slow dissociation of perindoprilat from plasma/tissue ACE binding sites. During repeated oral once-daily dosing with perindopril, perindoprilat accumulates about 1.5 to 2.0 fold and attains steady state plasma levels in 3 to 6 days. The clearance of perindoprilat and its metabolites is almost exclusively renal.
Approximately 60% of circulating perindopril is bound to plasma proteins, and only 10 to 20% of perindoprilat is bound. Therefore, drug interactions mediated through effects on protein binding are not anticipated.
At usual antihypertensive dosages, little radioactivity (<5% of the dose) was distributed to the brain after administration of 14 C-perindopril to rats.
Radioactivity was detectable in fetuses and in milk after administration of 14 C-perindopril to pregnant and lactating rats.
Elderly Patients: Plasma concentrations of both perindopril and perindoprilat in elderly patients (>70 yrs) are approximately twice those observed in younger patients, reflecting both increased conversion of perindopril to perindoprilat and decreased renal excretion of perindoprilat. (See PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use .)
Heart Failure Patients: Perindoprilat clearance is re-duced in congestive heart failure patients, resulting in a 40% higher dose interval AUC. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Patients with Renal Insufficiency: With perindopril erbumine doses of 2 to 4 mg, perindoprilat AUC increases with decreasing renal function. At creatinine clearances of 30 to 80 mL/min, AUC is about double that of 100 mL/min. When creatinine clearance drops below 30 mL/min, AUC increases more markedly.
In a limited number of patients studied, perindopril dialysis clearance ranged from 41.7 to 76.7 mL/min (mean 52.0 mL/min). Perindoprilat dialysis clearance ranged from 37.4 to 91.0 mL/min (mean 67.2 mL/min). (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Patients with Hepatic Insufficiency: The bioavailability of perindoprilat is increased in patients with impaired hepatic function. Plasma concentrations of perindoprilat in patients with impaired liver function were about 50% higher than those observed in healthy subjects or hypertensive patients with normal liver function.
Pharmacodynamics: In placebo-controlled studies of perindopril monotherapy (2 to 16 mg q.d.) in patients with a mean blood pressure of about 150/100 mm Hg, 2 mg had little effect, but doses of 4 to 16 mg lowered blood pressure. The 8 and 16 mg doses were indistinguishable, and both had a greater effect than the 4 mg dose. The magnitude of the blood pressure effect was similar in the standing and supine positions, generally about 1 mm Hg greater on standing. In these studies, doses of 8 and 16 mg per day gave supine, trough blood pressure reductions of 9 to 15/5 to 6 mm Hg. When once-daily and twice-daily dosing were compared, the B.I.D. regimen was generally slightly superior, but by not more than about 0.5 to 1 mm Hg. After 2 to 16 mg doses of perindopril, the trough mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure effects were approximately equal to the peak effects (measured 3 to 7 hours after dosing.). Trough effects were about 75 to 100% of peak effects. When perindopril was given to patients receiving 25 mg HCTZ, it had an added effect similar in magnitude to its effect as monotherapy, but 2 to 8 mg doses were approximately equal in effectiveness. In general, the effect of perindopril occurred promptly, with effects increasing slightly over several weeks.
In hemodynamic studies carried out in animal models of hypertension, blood pressure reduction after perindopril administration was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance and improved arterial wall compliance. In studies carried out in patients with essential hypertension, the reduction in blood pressure was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral resistance with no significant changes in heart rate or glomerular filtration rate. An increase in the compliance of large arteries was also observed, suggesting a direct effect on arterial smooth muscle, consistent with the results of animal studies.
Formal interaction studies of ACEON Tablets have not been carried out with antihypertensive agents other than thiazides. Limited experience in controlled and uncontrolled trials coadministering ACEON Tablets with a calcium channel blocker, a loop diuretic or triple therapy (beta-blocker, vasodilator and a diuretic), does not suggest any unexpected interactions. In general, ACE inhibitors have less than additive effects when given with beta-adrenergic blockers, presumably because both work in part through the renin angiotensin system. A controlled pharmacokinetic study has shown no effect on plasma digoxin concentrations when coadministered with ACEON Tablets. (See PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions .)
In uncontrolled studies in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, perindopril did not appear to affect glycemic control. In long-term use, no effect on urinary protein excretion was seen in these patients.
The effectiveness of ACEON Tablets was not influenced by sex and it was less effective in blacks than in nonblacks. In elderly patients (>/=60 years), the mean blood pressure effect was somewhat smaller than in younger patients, although the difference was not significant.
Indications and Usage
ACEON (perindopril erbumine) Tablets is indicated for the treatment of patients with essential hypertension. ACEON Tablets may be used alone or given with other classes of antihypertensives, especially thiazide diuretics.
When using ACEON Tablets, consideration should be given to the fact that another angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease. Available data are insufficient to determine whether ACEON Tablets has a similar potential. (See WARNINGS .)
In considering use of ACEON Tablets, it should be noted that in controlled trials ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in nonblacks. In addition, it should be noted that black patients receiving ACE inhibitor monotherapy have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks. (See WARNINGS: Head and Neck Angioedema .)
ACEON (perindopril erbumine) Tablets is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to this product or to any other ACE inhibitor. ACEON Tablets is also contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor.
Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions: Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including ACEON Tablets) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
Head and Neck Angioedema: Angioedema involving the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON (perindopril erbumine) Tablets (0.1% of patients treated with ACEON Tablets in U.S. clinical trials). In such cases, ACEON Tablets should be promptly discontinued and the patient carefully observed until the swelling disappears. In instances where swelling has been confined to the face and lips, the condition has generally resolved without treatment, although antihistamines have been useful in relieving symptoms. Angioedema associated with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx may be fatal due to airway obstruction. Appropriate therapy, such as subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL), should be promptly administered. Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor.
Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization: Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure: Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
Hypotension: Like other ACE inhibitors, ACEON Tablets can cause symptomatic hypotension. ACEON Tablets has been associated with hypotension in 0.3% of uncomplicated hypertensive patients in U.S. placebo-controlled trials. Symptoms related to orthostatic hypotension were reported in another 0.8% of patients.
Symptomatic hypotension associated with the use of ACE inhibitors is more likely to occur in patients who have been volume and/or salt-depleted, as a result of prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea or vomiting. Volume and/or salt depletion should be corrected before initiating therapy with ACEON Tablets. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitors may cause excessive hypotension, and may be associated with oliguria or azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and death. In patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease such an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or a cerebrovascular accident.
In patients at risk of excessive hypotension, ACEON Tablets therapy should be started under very close medical supervision. Patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of ACEON Tablets and/or diuretic is increased.
If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed immediately in a supine position and, if necessary, treated with an intravenous infusion of physiological saline. ACEON Tablets treatment can usually be continued following restoration of volume and blood pressure.
Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, rarely in uncomplicated patients but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially patients with a collagen vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Available data from clinical trials of ACEON Tablets are insufficient to show whether ACEON Tablets causes agranulocytosis at similar rates.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: ACE inhibitors can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women. Several dozen cases have been reported in the world literature. When pregnancy is detected, ACE inhibitors should be discontinued as soon as possible.
The use of ACE inhibitors during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure and death. Oligohydramnios has also been reported, presumably resulting from decreased fetal renal function; oligohydramnios in this setting has been associated with fetal limb contractures, craniofacial deformation and hypoplastic lung development. Prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and patent ductus arteriosus have also been reported, although it is not clear whether these occurrences were due to the ACE-inhibitor exposure.
These adverse effects do not appear to have resulted from intrauterine ACE-inhibitor exposure that has been limited to the first trimester. Mothers whose embryos and fetuses are exposed to ACE inhibitors only during the first trimester should be so informed. Nonetheless, when patients become pregnant, physicians should make every effort to discontinue the use of ACEON Tablets as soon as possible.
Rarely (probably less often than once in every thousand pregnancies), no alternative to ACE inhibitors will be found. In these rare cases, the mothers should be apprised of the potential hazards to their fetuses, and serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intra-amniotic environment.
If oligohydramnios is observed, Tablets should be discontinued unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. Contraction stress testing (CST), a non-stress test (NST) or biophysical profiling (BPP) may be appropriate, depending upon the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Infants with histories of in utero exposure to ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension, oliguria and hyperkalemia. If oliguria occurs, attention should be directed toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusion or dialysis may be required as means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Perindopril, which crosses the placenta, can theoretically be removed from the neonatal circulation by these means, but limited experience has not shown that such removal is central to the treatment of these infants.
No teratogenic effects of perindopril were seen in studies of pregnant rats, mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. On a mg/m 2 basis, the doses used in these studies were 6 times (in mice), 670 times (in rats), 50 times (in rabbits) and 17 times (in monkeys) the maximum recommended human dose (assuming a 50 kg adult). On a mg/kg basis, these multiples are 60 times (in mice), 3,750 times (in rats), 150 times (in rabbits) and 50 times (in monkeys) the maximum recommended human dose.
Hepatic Failure: Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.
General: Impaired Renal Function: As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals.
Hypertensive Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: In patients with severe congestive heart failure, where renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON Tablets, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death.
Hypertensive Patients with Renal Artery Stenosis: In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine may occur. Experience with ACE inhibitors suggests that these increases are usually reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.
Some hypertensive patients without apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient. These increases are more likely to occur in patients treated concomitantly with a diuretic and in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Reduction of dosages of ACEON Tablets, the diuretic or both may be required. In some cases, discontinuation of either or both drugs may be necessary.
Evaluation of hypertensive patients should always include an assessment of renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Hyperkalemia: Elevations of serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including ACEON Tablets. In U.S. controlled clinical trials, 1.4% of the patients receiving ACEON Tablets and 2.3% of patients receiving placebo showed increased serum potassium levels to greater than 5.7 mEq/L. Most cases were isolated single values that did not appear clinically relevant and were rarely a cause for withdrawal. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and the concomitant use of agents such as potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. Drugs associated with increases in serum potassium should be used cautiously, if at all, with ACEON Tablets. (See PRECAUTIONS : Drug Interactions .)
Cough: Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough. In controlled trials with perindopril, cough was present in 12% of perindopril patients and 4.5% of patients given placebo.
Surgery/Anesthesia: In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, ACEON Tablets may block angiotensin II formation that would otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension attributable to this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.
Information for Patients: Angioedema: Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, can occur with ACE inhibitor therapy, especially following the first dose. Patients should be told to report immediately signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, hoarseness or difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to take no more drug before consulting a physician.
Symptomatic Hypotension: As with any antihypertensive therapy, patients should be cautioned that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first few days of therapy and that it should be reported promptly. Patients should be told that if fainting occurs, ACEON Tablets should be discontinued and a physician consulted.
All patients should be cautioned that inadequate fluid intake or excessive perspiration, diarrhea or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure in association with ACE inhibitor therapy.
Hyperkalemia: Patients should be advised not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without a physician's advice.
Neutropenia: Patients should be told to report promptly any indication of infection ( e.g., sore throat, fever) which could be a sign of neutropenia.
Pregnancy: Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of second and third trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors, and they should also be told that these consequences do not appear to have resulted from intrauterine ACE-inhibitor exposure that has been limited to the first trimester. These patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
Tablets 2 mg: Scored one side, white, oblong (debossed "ACN 2" on one side and debossed with "SLV" on both sides of score on the other side)
Bottles of 100........................................NDC 0032-1101-01
Tablets 4 mg: Scored one side, pink, oblong (debossed "ACN 4" on one side and debossed with "SLV" on both sides of score on the other side)
Bottles of 100........................................NDC 0032-1102-01
Tablets 8 mg: Scored one side, salmon-colored, oblong (debossed "ACN 8" on one side and debossed with "SLV" on both sides of score on the other side)
Bottles of 100........................................NDC 0032-1103-01
Storage Conditions: Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP]. Protect from moisture.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Patheon Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Cincinnati, OH 45215 USA
Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Marietta, GA 30062
© 2003 Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
500063/500064 10E Rev 3/2003
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