Aminophylline

Name: Aminophylline

Uses of Aminophylline

Aminophylline is used in the treatment of:

  • Apnea
  • Asthma
  • Bradycardia
  • Bronchial Spasm
  • Bronchitis
  • Pulmonary Emphysema

This medication may be prescribed for other uses. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Aminophylline Drug Class

Aminophylline is part of the drug class:

  • Xanthines

Aminophylline and Pregnancy

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.

The FDA categorizes medications based on safety for use during pregnancy. Five categories - A, B, C, D, and X, are used to classify the possible risks to an unborn baby when a medication is taken during pregnancy.

Aminophylline falls into category C:

In animal studies, pregnant animals were given this medication and had some babies born with problems. No well-controlled studies have been done in humans, though. Therefore, this medication may be used if the potential benefits to the mother outweigh the potential risks to the unborn child.

OR

There are no well-controlled studies that have been done in pregnant women. Aminophylline should be used during pregnancy only if the possible benefit outweighs the possible risk to the unborn baby.

OR

No studies have been done in animals, and no well-controlled studies have been done in pregnant women. Aminophylline should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Forms of Medication

Aminophylline is available in the following forms:

  • Enema
  • Enemas
  • Extended Release Tablet
  • Injectable Solution
  • Oral Solution
  • Oral Tablet
  • Prefilled Syringe
  • Rectal Suppository

Before Using aminophylline

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For aminophylline, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to aminophylline or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of aminophylline in children. However, children younger than 1 year of age are more likely to have serious side effects, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving aminophylline.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of aminophylline in the elderly. However, elderly patients may be more sensitive to the effects of aminophylline than younger adults, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving aminophylline.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters C Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast Feeding

Studies in women suggest that this medication poses minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking aminophylline, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using aminophylline with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Amifampridine
  • Riociguat

Using aminophylline with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Adenosine
  • Blinatumomab
  • Bupropion
  • Ceritinib
  • Cimetidine
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Deferasirox
  • Desogestrel
  • Dienogest
  • Dihydroartemisinin
  • Donepezil
  • Drospirenone
  • Enoxacin
  • Erythromycin
  • Estradiol Cypionate
  • Estradiol Valerate
  • Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Ethynodiol Diacetate
  • Etintidine
  • Etonogestrel
  • Fluconazole
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Golimumab
  • Guselkumab
  • Halothane
  • Idelalisib
  • Idrocilamide
  • Imipenem
  • Levofloxacin
  • Levonorgestrel
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
  • Mestranol
  • Mexiletine
  • Norelgestromin
  • Norethindrone
  • Norgestimate
  • Norgestrel
  • Pefloxacin
  • Peginterferon Alfa-2a
  • Peginterferon Alfa-2b
  • Phenytoin
  • Pixantrone
  • Regadenoson
  • Rofecoxib
  • Secukinumab
  • Thiabendazole
  • Troleandomycin
  • Vemurafenib
  • Zileuton

Using aminophylline with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Adinazolam
  • Alprazolam
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Amiodarone
  • Azithromycin
  • Brotizolam
  • Cannabis
  • Carbamazepine
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Clorazepate
  • Diazepam
  • Disulfiram
  • Estazolam
  • Febuxostat
  • Flunitrazepam
  • Flurazepam
  • Halazepam
  • Interferon Alfa-2a
  • Ipriflavone
  • Isoproterenol
  • Ketazolam
  • Lorazepam
  • Lormetazepam
  • Medazepam
  • Methotrexate
  • Midazolam
  • Nilutamide
  • Nitrazepam
  • Oxazepam
  • Pancuronium
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Phenobarbital
  • Piperine
  • Prazepam
  • Propafenone
  • Quazepam
  • Rifampin
  • Rifapentine
  • Riluzole
  • Ritonavir
  • Secobarbital
  • St John's Wort
  • Tacrine
  • Telithromycin
  • Temazepam
  • Ticlopidine
  • Triazolam
  • Viloxazine
  • Zafirlukast

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using aminophylline with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use aminophylline, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.

  • Tobacco

Using aminophylline with any of the following may cause an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use aminophylline, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.

  • Caffeine
  • food

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of aminophylline. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Congestive heart failure or
  • Cor pulmonale (heart condition) or
  • Fever of 102 degrees F or higher for 24 hours or more or
  • Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or
  • Infection, severe (e.g., sepsis) or
  • Kidney disease in infants younger than 3 months of age or
  • Liver disease (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatitis) or
  • Pulmonary edema (lung condition) or
  • Shock (serious condition with very little blood flow in the body)—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
  • Heart rhythm problems (e.g., arrhythmia) or
  • Seizures, or history of or
  • Stomach ulcer—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.

If OVERDOSE is suspected

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Index Terms

  • Theophylline Ethylenediamine

Special Populations Gender

Significant reduction in theophylline clearance has been reported in women on the 20th day of the menstrual cycle and during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Dosing Hepatic Impairment

Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Initial: 0.25 mg/kg/hour; maximum dose: 507 mg/day unless serum concentrations indicate need for larger dose. Use with caution and monitor serum theophylline concentrations frequently.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) in original carton. Protect from light. Do not use if discolored or if crystals are present.

Aminophylline Pregnancy Warnings

Aminophylline (theophylline) has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. Animal studies of theophylline have revealed evidence of embryolethality and teratogenicity. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Aminophylline is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs risk.

The Collaborative Perinatal Project monitored 193 women with first trimester exposure to theophylline or aminophylline and found no increased risk of malformations. Cord serum concentrations and infant serum concentrations have been reported to approximate the mother's serum concentrations immediately following birth. In 12 mothers receiving aminophylline, maternal serum, cord serum, and infant serum theophylline concentrations averaged 10 mcg/mL at the time of delivery. Jitteriness, irritability, and vomiting have been reported in infants of mothers maintained on theophylline or aminophylline prior to delivery. Apnea has been reported in an infant born after 37.5 weeks gestation to a mother who had been maintained on theophylline throughout pregnancy for asthma. At approximately 48 hours after birth, the infant's serum theophylline concentration was 15 mcg/mL. The infant was placed on theophylline when the concentration measured 2 mcg/mL. Apnea resolved when the theophylline concentration reached 17 mcg/mL. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline have been studied in women during pregnancy. Studies throughout pregnancy have noted a significant decrease in the clearance of theophylline during the third trimester. The clearance was only slightly decreased during the first and second trimester. The plasma protein binding of theophylline also has been shown to decrease in the later stages of pregnancy. It is important to closely monitor the theophylline serum concentration and the patient for signs of toxicity during pregnancy.

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