Amiodarone Intravenous, Oral

Name: Amiodarone Intravenous, Oral

amiodarone Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

More common
  • Cough
  • dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
  • fever (slight)
  • numbness or tingling in the fingers or toes
  • painful breathing
  • sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
  • shortness of breath
  • trembling or shaking of the hands
  • trouble with walking
  • unusual and uncontrolled movements of the body
  • weakness of the arms or legs
Less common
  • Blue-gray coloring of the skin on the face, neck, and arms
  • blurred vision or blue-green halos seen around objects
  • coldness
  • dry eyes
  • dry, puffy skin
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • nervousness
  • pain and swelling in the scrotum
  • sensitivity of the eyes to light
  • sensitivity to heat
  • slow heartbeat
  • sweating
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • trouble with sleeping
  • unusual tiredness
  • weight gain or loss
Rare
  • Skin rash
  • yellow eyes or skin
Incidence not known
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • agitation
  • back, leg, or stomach pains
  • bleeding gums
  • blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • bloating
  • blood in the urine
  • bloody, black, or tarry stools
  • blue lips, fingernails, or skin
  • blurred or double vision
  • chest pain
  • chills
  • clay-colored stools
  • coma
  • confusion
  • confusion as to time, place, or person
  • coughing or spitting up blood
  • cracks in the skin
  • dark urine
  • decreased urine output
  • depression
  • diarrhea
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • difficult urination
  • dry cough
  • eye pain
  • fast heartbeat
  • fatigue
  • general body swelling
  • high fever
  • holding false beliefs that cannot be change by fact
  • hostility
  • inability to have or keep an erection
  • indigestion
  • irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing
  • irritability
  • itching
  • joint or muscle pain
  • large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • lethargy
  • loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  • loss of heat from the body
  • lower back or side pain
  • mood or mental change
  • muscle cramps or spasms
  • muscle pain or stiffness
  • muscle twitching
  • no breathing
  • noisy breathing
  • nosebleeds
  • pain in the abdomen, groin, or scrotum
  • pain or burning with urination
  • pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  • pale skin
  • pinpoint red spots on the skin
  • rapid weight gain
  • rash
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • red, irritated eyes
  • red, swollen skin
  • scaly skin
  • seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
  • seizures
  • severe headache
  • sneezing
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in mouth
  • stupor
  • swelling of the face, ankles, or hands
  • swelling of the scrotum
  • swollen or painful glands
  • tightness in the chest
  • troubled breathing
  • unpleasant breath odor
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual excitement, nervousness, or restlessness
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • vomiting of blood
  • wheezing

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Constipation
  • headache
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting
Less common
  • Bitter or metallic taste
  • decrease in sexual interest
  • decreased sexual ability in males
  • dizziness
  • flushing of the face

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What should I avoid while taking amiodarone?

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with amiodarone and lead to unwanted side effects. Avoid the use of grapefruit products while taking this medicine.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. Amiodarone can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors.

This medicine may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

For the Consumer

Applies to amiodarone: oral tablet

Other dosage forms:

  • intravenous solution

Along with its needed effects, amiodarone may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking amiodarone:

More common
  • Cough
  • dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
  • fever (slight)
  • numbness or tingling in the fingers or toes
  • painful breathing
  • sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
  • shortness of breath
  • trembling or shaking of the hands
  • trouble with walking
  • unusual and uncontrolled movements of the body
  • weakness of the arms or legs
Less common
  • Blue-gray coloring of the skin on the face, neck, and arms
  • blurred vision or blue-green halos seen around objects
  • coldness
  • dry eyes
  • dry, puffy skin
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • nervousness
  • pain and swelling in the scrotum
  • sensitivity of the eyes to light
  • sensitivity to heat
  • slow heartbeat
  • sweating
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • trouble with sleeping
  • unusual tiredness
  • weight gain or loss
Rare
  • Skin rash
  • yellow eyes or skin
Incidence not known
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • agitation
  • back, leg, or stomach pains
  • bleeding gums
  • blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • bloating
  • blood in the urine
  • bloody, black, or tarry stools
  • blue lips, fingernails, or skin
  • blurred or double vision
  • chest pain
  • chills
  • clay-colored stools
  • coma
  • confusion
  • confusion as to time, place, or person
  • coughing or spitting up blood
  • cracks in the skin
  • dark urine
  • decreased urine output
  • depression
  • diarrhea
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • difficult urination
  • dry cough
  • eye pain
  • fast heartbeat
  • fatigue
  • general body swelling
  • high fever
  • holding false beliefs that cannot be change by fact
  • hostility
  • inability to have or keep an erection
  • indigestion
  • irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing
  • irritability
  • itching
  • joint or muscle pain
  • large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • lethargy
  • loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  • loss of heat from the body
  • lower back or side pain
  • mood or mental change
  • muscle cramps or spasms
  • muscle pain or stiffness
  • muscle twitching
  • no breathing
  • noisy breathing
  • nosebleeds
  • pain in the abdomen, groin, or scrotum
  • pain or burning with urination
  • pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  • pale skin
  • pinpoint red spots on the skin
  • rapid weight gain
  • rash
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • red, irritated eyes
  • red, swollen skin
  • scaly skin
  • seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
  • seizures
  • severe headache
  • sneezing
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in mouth
  • stupor
  • swelling of the face, ankles, or hands
  • swelling of the scrotum
  • swollen or painful glands
  • tightness in the chest
  • troubled breathing
  • unpleasant breath odor
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual excitement, nervousness, or restlessness
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • vomiting of blood
  • wheezing

Some side effects of amiodarone may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Constipation
  • headache
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting
Less common
  • Bitter or metallic taste
  • decrease in sexual interest
  • decreased sexual ability in males
  • dizziness
  • flushing of the face

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to amiodarone: compounding powder, intravenous solution, oral tablet

General

The most common adverse reactions were corneal microdeposits, hypotension, and photosensitivity.[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Very common (10% or more): Hypotension (up to 20.2%)
Common (1% to 10%): Bradycardia, blood pressure decreased, congestive heart failure, heart arrest, ventricular tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, sinoatrial node dysfunction, flushing
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Conduction disturbances
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Marked bradycardia, sinus arrest, vasculitis, hot flushes
Frequency not reported: Torsade de pointes, collapse, atrial fibrillation, nodal arrhythmia, QT interval prolonged, sinus bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation, shock, asystole, pulseless electrical activity, cardiogenic shock, atrioventricular block, severe hypotension
Postmarketing reports: Sinoatrial block, intraventricular conduction disorders, bundle branch block, infra-His block, ventricular extrasystole, antegrade conduction via an accessory pathway[Ref]

Hepatic

Common (1% to 10%): Acute liver disorders with high serum transaminases and/or jaundice including hepatic failure, liver function tests abnormal, nonspecific hepatic disorder
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Pseudo alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, serum transaminases increased
Frequency not reported: ALT increased, AST increased
Postmarketing reports: Cholestatic hepatitis, cholestasis, jaundice, alkaline phosphatase increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased[Ref]

Respiratory

Common (1% to 10%): Pulmonary toxicity, pulmonary inflammation or fibrosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, severe respiratory complications, apnea
Frequency not reported: Pulmonary hemorrhage, lung edema, respiratory disorder, alveolar pneumonitis
Postmarketing reports: Possibly fatal respiratory disorder, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, hypoxia, pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary mass, pleuritis, pulmonary phospholipidosis, pleural effusion, eosinophilic pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome[Ref]

Ocular

Very common (10% or more): Corneal microdeposits (up to 90% or more)
Common (1% to 10%): Visual disturbance
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Optic neuropathy/neuritis
Frequency not reported: Permanent blindness, papilledema, corneal degeneration, eye discomfort, scotoma, lens opacities, macular degeneration, keratopathy, gritty eyes, itching, burning
Postmarketing reports: Visual field defect, blurred vision[Ref]

Dermatologic

Very common (10% or more): Photosensitivity (up to 10%)
Common (1% to 10%): Slate-gray or bluish pigmentations of light-exposed skin
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Erythema, rash, exfoliative dermatitis, alopecia, sweating
Frequency not reported: Granuloma, angioedema, urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, spontaneous ecchymosis, pustular psoriasis enhanced
Postmarketing reports: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, skin cancer, pruritus, bullous dermatitis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), eczema[Ref]

Nervous system

Common (1% to 10%): Extrapyramidal symptoms, extrapyramidal tremor, tremor/abnormal involuntary movement, lack of coordination, gait abnormal/ataxia, dizziness, paresthesia, headache, abnormal taste and smell
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Cerebellar ataxia, benign intracranial hypertension, vertigo
Frequency not reported: Peripheral neuropathy, demyelinating polyneuropathy, nerve conduction abnormal, neurolipidosis, neuromyopathy, parosmia
Postmarketing reports: Confusional state, disorientation, delirium, intracranial pressure increased, hypoesthesia, Parkinsonian symptoms[Ref]

Psychiatric

Common (1% to 10%): Nightmare, sleep disorders, libido decreased, insomnia, sleep disturbance
Frequency not reported: Vivid dreams, chronic anxiety
Postmarketing reports: Hallucination[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Common (1% to 10%): Nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, salivation abnormal
Frequency not reported: Vomiting, dysgeusia, diarrhea
Postmarketing reports: Pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, dry mouth[Ref]

Other

Common (1% to 10%): Fever, malaise, fatigue[Ref]

Endocrine

Common (1% to 10%): Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Frequency not reported: Thyroid function tests abnormal
Postmarketing reports: Thyroid nodules/cancer[Ref]

Metabolic

Common (1% to 10%): Anorexia, edema
Frequency not reported: Weight gain, symptomatic hypercalcemia, appetite decreased[Ref]

Hematologic

Common (1% to 10%): Coagulation abnormalities
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia
Frequency not reported: Bone marrow granuloma, bone marrow depression
Postmarketing reports: Pancytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytosis[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Common (1% to 10%): Muscle weakness
Frequency not reported: Back pain
Postmarketing reports: Myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, muscle spasm, lupus-like syndrome[Ref]

Local

Common (1% to 10%): Injection site reactions[Ref]

Genitourinary

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Epididymo-orchitis, impotence
Postmarketing reports: Epididymitis[Ref]

Immunologic

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Anaphylactic shock
Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity reaction, positive antinuclear antibodies, immunoglobulin level increased
Postmarketing reports: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction[Ref]

Renal

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Blood creatinine increased
Frequency not reported: Kidney function abnormal, chronic renal failure worsened
Postmarketing reports: Renal impairment, renal insufficiency, acute renal failure[Ref]

Some side effects of amiodarone may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.

Bottom Line

Amiodarone should ONLY be used in the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias that have not responded to other treatments. Amiodarone does not appear to increase life expectancy and can be difficult to manage, with a high risk of potentially fatal toxicities. Every effort should be made to use alternative agents first.

Tips

  • Take dosage exactly as directed; however, do not hesitate to call your doctor if you develop worrying side effects. Do not increase dosage without your doctor's consult as the lowest effective dosage should always be used.
  • Avoid grapefruit juice and grapefruit products.
  • May increase a person's sensitivity to the sun so avoid sunlight and indoor tanning beds whenever possible. Always use sunblock and wear a hat, sunglasses, and clothes that cover your skin if outdoor exposure is unavoidable. Talk to your doctor if you unintentionally get sunburnt.
  • Long-term treatment may cause a blue-gray discoloration of exposed skin. The risk may be increased in people of fair complexion, with excessive sun exposure, higher dosages or longer duration of treatment.
  • Contact your doctor urgently if you experience shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, blood in your sputum, nausea or vomiting, brown or dark-colored urine, extreme tiredness, yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes, abdominal pain, disturbances to your heartbeat, swelling of your neck (goiter), or tremor.
  • Amiodarone may make your eyes dry and you may need to relieve the dryness with over-the-counter lubricating eye drops. Call your doctor immediately if you experience halos around objects, blurred vision, or sensitivity to light. People taking amiodarone are not deemed suitable for corneal refractive laser eye surgery.

Amiodarone Levels and Effects while Breastfeeding

Summary of Use during Lactation

Breastmilk and infant serum levels of amiodarone and its active metabolite are somewhat unpredictable, but can be high during breastfeeding. The infant receives an estimated dose of amiodarone plus desethylamiodarone ranging from 3.5 to 45% of the mother's weight-adjusted amiodarone dose, with a median dose of about 11%.[1][2][3][4] Infant serum levels of the drug plus metabolite range from 14 to 74% of simultaneous maternal levels, with the higher values reflecting transplacental passage of the drug.[2][3][4] In addition to possible cardiac effects, these compounds contain a large amount of iodine which may be released during metabolism. Thyroid dysfunction was reported in one breastfed infant. Even if the drug were discontinued at birth, the mother would continue to excrete amiodarone and its metabolite (and possibly large amounts of iodine) into breastmilk for days to weeks.

Some investigators believe that breastfeeding can be undertaken during maternal amiodarone use with periodic monitoring of infant cardiac and thyroid function status,[5][6] especially if only a single dose of amiodarone is given.[7] Infant serum levels of amiodarone and desethylamiodarone may be useful for ruling out cardiac effects of the drug. If hypothyroidism develops, therapy should be promptly initiated.

Drug Levels

Amiodarone is an iodine-containing compound that is active and is also metabolized to the active metabolite desethylamiodarone. Metabolism also releases 6 mg of free iodine for each 100 mg of amiodarone which can affect thyroid function. The drug has an exceptionally long half-life of 100 days in adults because of extensive storage in body fat. It requires weeks to months to attain steady state and to be cleared from the body.[6]

Maternal Levels. After having taken amiodarone 200 mg twice daily 5 days weekly for 4 years, the milk of a mother was completely expressed 4 times during the first 2 days postpartum. The average milk amiodarone concentration was 3.5 mg/L. The authors calculated that her infant would have received an average of 18% and a maximum of 26% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage of amiodarone.[8]

A woman who took amiodarone with reducing doses of 600, 400 and 200 mg daily for one week at each dosage level during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy had milk amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels of 0.5 to 1.8 mg/L and 0.4 to 0.8 mg/L, respectively, in 5 samples of colostrum obtained during days 2 and 3 postpartum.[1]

In a mother who took amiodarone 200 mg daily for the last 5 weeks of pregnancy and for one week after delivery, milk amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels were 0.55 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, at 4 weeks postpartum and 0.030 and 0.002 mg/L at 6 weeks postpartum.[4]

A mother who took amiodarone 200 mg daily throughout pregnancy and during breastfeeding had milk amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels of 1.7 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively, 2 weeks postpartum and 3.0 and 1.8 mg/L 3 weeks postpartum.[4]

Another mother who took amiodarone 200 mg daily throughout pregnancy had milk amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels of 2.2 and 0.77 mg/L, respectively, at birth. Her infant was breastfed, but no infant serum levels were measured.[4]

A woman who took amiodarone 400 mg daily from week 14 of pregnancy and throughout nursing had milk amiodarone levels that varied from 1.06 to 3.65 mg/L (average 2.52 mg/L) and milk desethylamiodarone levels that varied from 0.5 to 1.24 mg/L (average 0.9 mg/L) on 5 occasions during the month following delivery. Her breastfed infant's thyroid function tests remained normal.[3]

A woman who took amiodarone 800 mg daily for 1 week starting at week 34 of pregnancy, then 400 mg daily for the rest of her pregnancy and during breastfeeding had milk amiodarone levels that varied from 3.6 to 14.4 mg/L (average 10.4 mg/L) and milk desethylamiodarone levels that varied from 1.3 to 5.7 mg/L (average 4.1 mg/L) on days 9, 11 and 13 postpartum.[2]

A woman took amiodarone 200 mg three times daily for 11 days, then 200 mg twice daily during her pregnancy. She discontinued the drug at the time of delivery and breastfed her infant. The milk amiodarone level was 0.6 mg/L on day 5 and increased to 2.1 mg/L on day 11. The increase between days 5 and 11 could have been due to sampling times (fore- vs hindmilk) or because of an increase in fat content as lactation progressed. Amiodarone was undetectable in milk by day 25.[9]

Infant Levels. A mother took amiodarone 200 mg daily throughout pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Her breastfed infant had serum amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels of 30 and 320 mcg/L (4.5 and 51% of maternal plasma levels), respectively, at 3 weeks postpartum.[4]

A mother took amiodarone 200 mg daily for the last 5 weeks of pregnancy and for one week after delivery. At 4 weeks postpartum the breastfed infant's plasma amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels were 10 and 160 mcg/L, respectively At 6 weeks postpartum, her breastfed infant's drug and metabolite plasma levels were 10 and 30 mcg/L.[3]

A woman took amiodarone 400 mg daily from week 14 of pregnancy and throughout nursing. Her breastfed infant's serum amiodarone and desethylamiodarone levels were 200 and 50 mcg/L (60% and 14% of maternal levels), respectively, at one day of age and undetectable (<100 and <50 mcg/L, respectively) at 1 and 2 weeks of age.[4]

A woman took amiodarone 800 mg daily for 1 week starting at week 34 of pregnancy, then 400 mg daily for the rest of her pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Her breastfed infant's serum amiodarone level remained constant at 400 mcg/L (about 25% of maternal serum levels) during the first 9 weeks of life, while desethylamiodarone levels slowly decreased from 0.3 (22% of maternal serum levels) to 150 mcg/L (10% of maternal serum levels) during the same time period.[2]

One group reported amiodarone breastmilk levels in 2 patients. The first mother received a total of 7.6 grams of amiodarone over the first 7 days postpartum for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. She collected breastmilk samples between days 10 and 18 postpartum. Back-extrapolation of the sample values indicated an initial amiodarone concentration of 24.8 mg/L that fell with a half-life of 4.4 days. The second patient received a single amiodarone dose of 150 mg intravenously on day 1 postpartum. Breastmilk samples collected on days 4 and 5 postpartum contained amiodarone 0.19 mg/L and 0.17 mg/L, and desethylamiodarone, 0.084 mg/L and 0.085 mg/L, respectively. The authors concluded that breastmilk cessation is probably not necessary after a single dose of 150 mg.[7]

In summary, from these limited number of case reports, the infant receives an estimated dose of amiodarone plus desethylamiodarone ranging from 3.5 to 45% of the mother's weight-adjusted amiodarone dose, with a median dose of about 11%.[1][2][3][4] Infant serum levels of the drug plus metabolite range from 14 to 74% of simultaneous maternal levels, with the higher values reflecting transplacental passage of the drug.[2][3][4] There are no reports on the amount of free iodine excreted into breastmilk during amiodarone use.

Effects in Breastfed Infants

Five infants who breastfed without apparent harm during maternal amiodarone therapy have been reported.[2][3][4][9]

One mother took amiodarone during the last 5 weeks of pregnancy and until one week after delivery. She was also taking metoprolol throughout pregnancy and at the time of delivery. Possible signs of hypothyroidism occurred transiently in her breastfed infant at 9 and 24 days of age. This was possibly caused by amiodarone or iodine from amiodarone in breastmilk, although residual amiodarone from transplacental passage is also a possible contributing factor; no abnormalities in cornea or the lungs were found.[4]

Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date. However, if amiodarone causes hypothyroidism in the mother, her milk supply could be diminished.

References

1. Pitcher D, Leather HM, Storey GCA et al. Amiodarone in pregnancy. Lancet. 1983;1:597-8. Letter. PMID: 6131292

2. McKenna WJ, Harris L, Rowland E et al. Amiodarone therapy during pregnancy. Am J Cardiol. 1983;51:1231-3. PMID: 6837469

3. Strunge P, Frandsen J, Andreasen F. Amiodarone during pregnancy. Eur Heart J. 1988;9:106-9. PMID: 3345766

4. Plomp TA, Vulsma T, de Vijlder JJM. Use of amiodarone during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1992;43:201-7. PMID: 1563571

5. Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Braverman LE et al. Effects of amiodarone administration during pregnancy on neonatal thyroid function and subsequent neurodevelopment. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24:116-130. PMID: 11263469

6. Basaria S, Cooper DS. Amiodarone and the thyroid. Am J Med. 2005;118:706-14. PMID: 15989900

7. Khurana R, Bin Jardan YA, Wilkie J, Brocks DR. Breast milk concentrations of amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, and bisoprolol following short-term drug exposure: Two case reports. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;54:828-31. PMID: 24482268

8. Moretti ME, Ito S, Koren G. Therapeutic drug monitoring in the lactating patient. Reprod Toxicol. 1995;9(6):580-1. Abstract.

9. Hall CM, McCormick KP. Amiodarone and breast feeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003;88: F255-4. PMID: 12719404

Amiodarone Identification

Substance Name

Amiodarone

CAS Registry Number

1951-25-3

Drug Class

Antiarrhythmics

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