Aurovela Fe 1 / 20

Name: Aurovela Fe 1 / 20

Aurovela Fe 1/20 - Clinical Pharmacology

Combination oral contraceptives act by suppression of gonadotropins. Although the primary mechanism of this action is inhibition of ovulation, other alterations include changes in the cervical mucus (which increase the difficulty of sperm entry into the uterus) and the endometrium (which reduce the likelihood of implantation).

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of Aurovela Fe 1/20 has not been characterized; however, the following pharmacokinetic information regarding norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol is taken from the literature.

Absorption

Norethindrone acetate appears to be completely and rapidly deacetylated to norethindrone after oral administration, since the disposition of norethindrone acetate is indistinguishable from that of orally administered norethindrone (1).  Norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol are subject to first-pass metabolism after oral dosing, resulting in an absolute bioavailability of approximately 64% for norethindrone and 43% for ethinyl estradiol (1 to 3).
 Distribution

Volume of distribution of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol ranges from 2 to 4 L/kg (1 to 3).  Plasma protein binding of both steroids is extensive (greater than 95%); norethindrone binds to both albumin and sex hormone binding globulin, whereas ethinyl estradiol binds only to albumin (4). 

Metabolism

Norethindrone undergoes extensive biotransformation, primarily via reduction, followed by sulfate and glucuronide conjugation. The majority of metabolites in the circulation are sulfates, with glucuronides accounting for most of the urinary metabolites (5). A small amount of norethindrone acetate is metabolically converted to ethinyl estradiol. Ethinyl estradiol is also extensively metabolized, both by oxidation and by conjugation with sulfate and glucuronide.  Sulfates are the major circulating conjugates of ethinyl estradiol and glucuronides predominate in urine. 

The primary oxidative metabolite is 2-hydroxy ethinyl estradiol, formed by the CYP3A4 isoform of cytochrome P450.  Part of the first-pass metabolism of ethinyl estradiol is believed to occur in gastrointestinal mucosa. Ethinyl estradiol may undergo enterohepatic circulation (6).

Excretion

Norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol are excreted in both urine and feces, primarily as metabolites (5,6).  Plasma clearance values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol are similar (approximately 0.4 L/hr/kg) (1 to 3). 

Special Population

Race

The effect of race on the disposition of Aurovela Fe 1/20 has not been evaluated.

Renal Insufficiency

The effect of renal disease on the disposition of Aurovela Fe 1/20 has not been evaluated. In premenopausal women with chronic renal failure undergoing peritoneal dialysis who received multiple doses of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone, plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations were higher and norethindrone concentrations were unchanged compared to concentrations in premenopausal women with normal renal function.

Hepatic Insufficiency

The effect of hepatic disease on the disposition of Aurovela Fe 1/20 has not been evaluated. However, ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Numerous drug-drug interactions have been reported for oral contraceptives. A summary of these is found under PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions.

Indications and Usage for Aurovela Fe 1/20

Aurovela Fe 1/20 is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use oral contraceptives as a method of contraception.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective. Table I lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.

TABLE I LOWEST EXPECTED AND TYPICAL FAILURE RATES DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF CONTINUOUS USE OF A METHOD
Adapted from RA Hatcher et al, Reference 7.
* The authors’ best guess of the percentage of women expected to experience an accidental pregnancy among couples who initiate a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it consistently and correctly during the first year if they do not stop for any other reason.
** This term represents “typical” couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason.
*** N/A--Data not available.
% of Women Experiencing an Unintended Pregnancy in the First Year of Continuous Use
  Method
Lowest
Expected*
Typical**
  (No contraception)
  Oral contraceptives
       combined
       progestin only
  Diaphragm with spermicidal
       cream or jelly
  Spermicides alone (foam, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film) Vaginal Sponge
       nulliparous
       parous
  Implant
  Injection: depot medroxyprogesterone acetate
  IUD
       progesterone T
       copper T 380A
       LNg 20
  Condom without spermicides
       female
       male
  Cervical Cap with spermicidal
       cream or jelly
       nulliparous
       parous
  Periodic abstinence (all methods)
  Withdrawal
  Female sterilization
  Male sterilization
(85)
 
0.1
0.5
 
6
6
9
20
0.05
0.3
 
1.5
0.6
0.1
 
5
3
 
 
9
26
1 to 9
4
0.5
0.1
(85)
3
N/A***
N/A***
 
20
26
20
40
0.05
0.3
 
2
0.8
0.1
 
21
14
 
 
20
40
25
19
0.5
0.15

Contraindications

Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who currently have the following conditions:


  • Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders
  • A past history of deep vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders
  • Cerebral vascular or coronary artery disease
  • Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast
  • Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia
  • Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding
  • Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use
  • Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas
  • Known or suspected pregnancy
  • Are receiving Hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to the potential for ALT elevations (see WARNINGS, Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevations with Concomitant Hepatitis C Treatment).

How is Aurovela Fe 1/20 Supplied

AurovelaTM Fe 1/20 (Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets USP, 1 mg/20 mcg and Ferrous Fumarate Tablets, 75 mg) are light yellow to yellow, round, flat-faced, beveled-edge, uncoated tablets, debossed with ‘S’ on one side and ‘64’ on other side of the tablet. Each brown mottled, round, flat-faced beveled-edge tablet contains 75 mg ferrous fumarate and is debossed with ‘S’ on one side and ‘57’ on other side of the tablet. The ferrous fumarate tablets are present to facilitate ease of drug administration via a 28-day regimen, are non-hormonal, and do not serve any therapeutic purpose.

1 pouch of 28 tablets NDC 65862-940-87
Carton of 5 pouches NDC 65862-940-58

Store at 20o to 25oC (68o to 77oF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 1 mg/20 mcg and 75 mg Pouch Label

28 DAY REGIMEN          NDC 65862-940-87
AurovelaTM Fe 1/20
(Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets USP
and Ferrous Fumarate Tablets*)
Each light yellow to yellow tablet contains norethindrone
acetate USP, 1 mg; ethinyl estradiol USP, 20 mcg.
Each brown tablet contains ferrous fumarate USP, 75 mg.
Each pouch contains 21 light yellow to yellow tablets and
7 brown tablets.
* Ferrous fumarate tablets are not USP for dissolution and
Assay.

THIS PRODUCT (LIKE ALL ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE) IS INTENDED
TO PREVENT PREGNANCY. IT DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST HIV INFECTION
(AIDS) OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED  DISEASES.

Rx only           28-TABLET POUCH
AUROBINDO




For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to ethinyl estradiol / norethindrone: oral capsule, oral tablet, oral tablet chewable

General

A number of studies have suggested that use of oral contraceptives decreases the risk of ovarian cancer. Specifically, the risk of epithelial ovarian cancers is decreased by 40%. The protection against ovarian cancer may last for 10 to 15 years after discontinuation of oral contraceptives. After long term use (12 years), the risk of ovarian cancer is decreased by as much as 80%.

The risk of endometrial cancer is decreased by approximately 50%. Protection may last for 15 years after discontinuation and may be greatest for nulliparous women who may be at higher risk for endometrial carcinoma than other women.

The incidence of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease is approximately 50% lower in women taking oral contraceptives. The reason for the decrease in the frequency (or severity) of pelvic inflammatory disease in women taking oral contraceptives has not been fully elucidated.

Some recent studies have suggested that the decrease in frequency of functional ovarian cysts reported with some older formulations may not occur in women taking newer low dose formulations.

One recent study (The Nurses' Health Study) has suggested that long term use of oral contraceptives is safe and does not adversely affect long term risk for mortality.[Ref]

Women taking oral contraceptive combinations may have experienced several non-contraceptive health benefits. These benefits include protection against two malignant neoplasms (endometrial carcinoma and ovarian cancer). In addition, use of oral contraceptive combinations has reportedly decreased the frequency of benign breast tumors, decreased the risk of ovarian cysts, decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy, increased menstrual regularity, decreased the incidence of iron deficiency anemia, decreased the incidence of dysmenorrhea, and decreased the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal side effects have included nausea, which occurred in approximately 10% of treated women and was more frequent during the first cycles of therapy. Some early reports suggested an association between oral contraceptive use and gallbladder disease.[Ref]

Cases of oral contraceptive-induced esophageal ulceration and geographic tongue have been reported rarely.

More recent studies have suggested that the risk of gallbladder disease is minimal.[Ref]

Oncologic

Oncologic side effects have included reports of increased risk of invasive breast cancer. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. A number of studies have examined a possible relationship between the use of oral contraceptives and the development of breast cancer. Many of the studies have reported conflicting results. A committee of the World Health Organization evaluated these studies and the risks of breast cancer and concluded that: "Numerous studies have found no overall association between oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer." In addition, the same committee also examined a possible relationship between oral contraceptive use and neoplasms of the uterine cervix and concluded that: "There are insufficient data to draw any firm conclusions regarding the effects of combined oral contraceptives on the risk of cervical adenocarcinoma."[Ref]

The World Health Organization committee also noted that some studies "have found a weak association between long-term use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 36, and perhaps up to the age 45....It is unclear whether this observed association is attributable to bias, the development of new cases of cancer, or accelerated growth of existing cancers."

The World Health Organization committee further concluded that there is no increased risk of breast cancer in women over the age of 45 who have previously taken oral contraceptives. In addition, studies suggest that use of oral contraceptives does not place specific groups of women (like those with a family history of breast cancer) at higher or lower risk, and variations in the hormonal content of oral contraceptives do not influence the risk of breast cancer.

In general, studies evaluating the potential risk of cervical cancer in patients taking oral contraceptives have been complicated by the large number of confounding factors which make investigations into the epidemiology of this neoplasm difficult. Some studies have suggested that women taking oral contraceptives are at increased risk of dysplasia, epidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. However, other studies have not found such an association.[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Detailed information concerning the effects of oral contraceptive therapy on lipid metabolism is available in the Endocrine paragraph of this side effect monograph.

Some early investigations of women taking high dose estrogen combinations (50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent daily) suggested that such women may be at increased risk of cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular thrombosis, including venous thromboembolism). However, more recent large investigations of women taking low dose estrogen combinations have suggested that oral contraceptive use is not associated with an increased risk of serious cardiovascular complications in healthy non smoking women up to the age of 45. (For women aged 35 to 44 who smoke or who have preexisting systemic diseases that may affect the cardiovascular system, use of oral contraceptives is not recommended.)

However, some investigators have suggested that even the new low dose products may result in adverse effects on lipid metabolism and should prompt careful review of a woman's cardiovascular risk factors before a decision to use oral contraceptive combinations is made.

The frequency of both subarachnoid hemorrhage and thrombotic stroke has been reported by some investigators to be higher in women taking oral contraceptive hormones. However, other investigators have suggested that the risk of these effects for women using newer low dose formulations are very small for young women without underlying cardiovascular disease or other risk factors.[Ref]

Cardiovascular side effects have included reports of increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Earlier studies had suggested that unopposed estrogen therapy may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by as much as 35% and that combination therapy with a progestin may also decrease coronary risk. Cardiovascular side effects of the estrogen component of this combination have also included reports of hypertension. However, significant blood pressure increases generally occur only in women receiving high-dose estrogen products (50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent daily). Estrogens have also been associated with edema. In addition, exogenous estrogens may exert cardioprotective effects by causing favorable changes in lipid profiles. These beneficial effects, however, may be partially or completely offset by alterations in lipid profiles induced by exogenous progestins.[Ref]

Endocrine

Endocrine side effects have included reports of complex alterations in plasma lipid profiles and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, oral contraceptive use has been reported to cause conception delay.[Ref]

All the progestins which occur in commercially available oral contraceptive combinations have adverse effects on lipid profiles. Specifically, these progestins exert antiestrogen and androgen effects and decrease HDL (and HDL2) cholesterol levels and increase LDL cholesterol levels. However, the estrogens in oral contraceptive combinations exert opposing effects. Consequently, alterations in lipid profiles are related to the relative amount and potency of the specific estrogen and progestin in a given product. (Norethindrone exerts a moderate androgen effect and weak progestin and antiestrogen effects.)

A number of investigations have suggested that oral contraceptive combinations may decrease glucose tolerance. However, some recent studies with low dose preparations have suggested that decreases in glucose tolerance due to oral contraceptive combinations are generally minimal.

Despite the potentially adverse effects of oral contraceptives on lipid levels and glucose tolerance, some investigators have suggested that young diabetic women without existing vascular disease or severe lipidemias may be candidates for low dose oral contraceptive combinations provided that they receive close monitoring for adverse metabolic effects.[Ref]

Hepatic

Hepatic side effects have included focal nodular hyperplasia, intrahepatic cholestasis, liver cell adenomas, hepatic granulomas, hepatic hemangiomas and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas, which have been reported rarely in association with estrogen therapy and therapy with oral contraceptive combinations.[Ref]

The rate of death due to hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has not changed during the last 25 years (a time during which use of oral contraceptive hormones has increased dramatically).

A committee of the World Health Organization has reported that in developing countries where hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma are common, "short term use of oral contraceptives does not appear to be associated with an increased risk. Data on the effects of long term use are scarce."

A recent Italian case-control study of women with hepatocellular carcinoma has suggested that the relative risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is 2.2 for oral contraceptive users compared to women who never used oral contraceptives.

A similar American case-control study from 1989 also reported a strong association between oral contraceptive use and hepatocellular carcinoma but concluded that: "If this observed association is causal, the actual number of cases of liver cancer in the United States attributable to oral contraceptive use is small. Therefore, these findings do not have public health importance in the United States and other Western nations."[Ref]

Hematologic

Cases of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (sometimes fatal), and arterial thrombosis have been reported rarely.

Previous thrombotic disease is considered a contraindication to use of oral contraceptive combinations.[Ref]

Hematologic side effects have included the risk of thromboembolism that is associated with the use of exogenous estrogens. However, because the dose of exogenous estrogens is low in most commercially available preparations, the risk of thromboembolism is minimal for most women (except women who are over age 35 and smoke and women with a history of previous thrombotic diseases).[Ref]

Genitourinary

Genitourinary side effects have commonly included breakthrough bleeding and spotting, especially during the first several cycles of oral contraceptive use. Non-hormonal causes of such bleeding should be excluded. Additional side effects reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy include changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, vaginal candidiasis, change in amount of cervical secretion, change in cervical ectropion, ovarian cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer and vaginitis.[Ref]

Some women experience oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea following termination or oral contraceptive use.[Ref]

Psychiatric

Psychiatric side effects have included depression and precipitation of panic disorder.[Ref]

Immunologic

Immunologic side effects have included rare cases of oral contraceptive-induced systemic lupus erythematosus.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects have included chorea, which has been reported once in association with oral contraceptives.[Ref]

Ocular

Ocular side effects have included rare cases of retinal thrombosis. In addition, the manufacturers of oral contraceptive products report that some patients develop changes in contact lens tolerance.[Ref]

Respiratory

Respiratory side effects have included reports of increased risk of pulmonary embolism. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism.[Ref]

A case of fatal pulmonary venooclusive disease has been associated with oral contraceptive therapy.[Ref]

Some side effects of Aurovela Fe 1 / 20 may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.

(web3)