Banzel

Name: Banzel

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Rufinamide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • sleepiness
  • headache
  • loss of coordination
  • difficulty walking
  • excessive movement or activity
  • uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
  • uncontrollable movements of the eyes
  • difficulty paying attention
  • dizziness
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • back pain
  • stomach pain

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

  • fever
  • rash
  • hives
  • itching
  • swelling of the face
  • decreased ability to respond to others
  • seizures
  • blurred or double vision
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • dark-colored urine
  • light-colored stool

Rufinamide may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

Side effects

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Central Nervous System Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • QT Shortening [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  •  Leukopenia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Reactions in Adult and Pediatric Patients ages 3 to 17 Years of Age

In the pooled, double-blind, adjunctive therapy studies in adult and pediatric patients ages 3 to 17 years of age, the most common ( ≥ 10%) adverse reactions in BANZEL-treated patients, in all doses studied (200 to 3200 mg per day) with a higher frequency than in patients on placebo were: headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, and nausea.

Table 2 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years) with epilepsy treated with BANZEL in controlled adjunctive studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL than in patients on placebo.

At the target dose of 45 mg/kg per day for adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years), the most common ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions with an incidence greater than in placebo for BANZEL were somnolence, vomiting, and headache.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (Ages 3 to less than 17 years) in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=187) %
Placebo
(N=182) %
Somnolence 17 9
Vomiting 17 7
Headache 16 8
Fatigue 9 8
Dizziness 8 6
Nausea 7 3
Influenza 5 4
Nasopharyngitis 5 3
Decreased Appetite 5 2
Rash 4 2
Ataxia 4 1
Diplopia 4 1
Bronchitis 3 2
Sinusitis 3 2
Psychomotor Hyperactivity 3 1
Upper Abdominal Pain 3 2
Aggression 3 2
Ear Infection 3 1
Disturbance in Attention 3 1
Pruritis 3 0

Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with BANZEL (up to 3200 mg per day) in adjunctive controlled studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL than in patients on placebo. In these studies, either BANZEL or placebo was added to the current AED therapy.

At all doses studied of up to 3200 mg per day given as adjunctive therapy in adults, the most common ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions, and with the greatest increase in incidence compared to placebo, for BANZEL were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, diplopia, vision blurred, and ataxia.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Adults in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=823) %
Placebo
(N=376) %
Headache 27 26
Dizziness 19 12
Fatigue 16 10
Nausea 12 9
Somnolence 11 9
Diplopia 9 3
Tremor 6 5
Nystagmus 6 5
Blurred Vision 6 2
Vomiting 5 4
Ataxia 4 0
Upper Abdominal Pain 3 2
Anxiety 3 2
Constipation 3 2
Dyspepsia 3 2
Back Pain 3 1
Gait Disturbance 3 1
Vertigo 3 1

Discontinuation in Controlled Clinical Studies

In controlled, double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 9% of pediatric and adult patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy and 4% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy were generally similar in adults and pediatric patients.

In pediatric patients (ages 4 to less than 17 years) double-blind adjunctive clinical studies, 8% of patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy (at the recommended dose of 45 mg/kg per day) and 2% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Most Common Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation in Pediatric Patients (Ages 4 to less than 17 years) in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=187) %
Placebo
(N=182) %
Convulsion 2 1
Rash 2 1
Fatigue 2 0
Vomiting 1 0

In adult double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 10% of patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy (at doses up to 3200 mg per day) and 6% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 5.

Table 5: Most Common Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation in Adult Patients in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=823) %
Placebo
(N=376) %
Dizziness 3 1
Fatigue 2 1
Headache 2 1
Nausea 1 0
Ataxia 1 0

Pediatric Patients Ages 1 to Less Than 4 Years

In a multicenter, parallel group, open-label study comparing BANZEL (45 mg/kg per day) adjunctive treatment (n=25) to the adjunctive treatment with an AED of the investigator's choice (n=11) in pediatric patients (1 year to less than 4 years of age) with inadequately controlled Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, the adverse reaction profile was generally similar to that observed in adults and pediatric patients 4 years of age and older treated with BANZEL. Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2 (8 %) BANZEL-treated patients and with a higher frequency than in the AED comparator group were: vomiting (24%), somnolence (16%), bronchitis (12%), constipation (12%), cough (12%), decreased appetite (12%), rash (12%), otitis media (8%), pneumonia (8%), decreased weight (8%), gastroenteritis (8%), nasal congestion (8%), and pneumonia aspiration (8%).

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Trials

BANZEL has been administered to 1978 individuals during all epilepsy clinical trials (placebo-controlled and open-label). Adverse reactions occurring during these studies were recorded by the investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of patients having adverse reactions, these events were grouped into standardized categories using the MedDRA dictionary. Adverse events occurring at least three times and considered possibly related to treatment are included in the System Organ Class listings below. Terms not included in the listings are those already included in the tables above, those too general to be informative, those related to procedures, and terms describing events common in the population. Some events occurring fewer than 3 times are also included based on their medical significance. Because the reports include events observed in open-label, uncontrolled observations, the role of BANZEL in their causation cannot be reliably determined.

Events are classified by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency as follows: frequent adverse events—those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events—those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare—those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Frequent: anemia. Infrequent: lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, neutropenia, iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia.

Cardiac Disorders: Infrequent: bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block first degree.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: decreased appetite, increased appetite.

Renal and Urinary Disorders: Frequent: pollakiuria. Infrequent: urinary incontinence, dysuria, hematuria, nephrolithiasis, polyuria, enuresis, nocturia, incontinence.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of BANZEL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other serious skin rashes with mucosal involvement.

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Banzel Drug Class

Banzel is part of the drug class:

  • Carboxamide derivatives

Banzel Overdose

If you take too much this medication, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If this medication is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Stability

Storage

Oral

Suspension

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).1

Tablets

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°).1 Protect from moisture.1

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of providing copy of written patient information (medication guide) each time rufinamide is dispensed.1 20 31 Importance of patients reading this information prior to taking the drug.1 31

  • Risk of suicidality (anticonvulsants, including rufinamide, may increase risk of suicidal thoughts or actions in about 1 in 500 people).1 2 20 34 Importance of patients, family members, and caregivers being alert to day-to-day changes in mood, behavior, and actions and immediately informing clinician of any new or worrisome behaviors (e.g., talking or thinking about wanting to hurt oneself or end one's life, withdrawing from friends and family, becoming depressed or experiencing worsening of existing depression, becoming preoccupied with death and dying, giving away prized possessions).1 2 34

  • Risk of multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions.1 34 Importance of notifying clinician if rash (with or without fever) occurs.1 34

  • Importance of taking rufinamide only as prescribed.1 34

  • Importance of taking rufinamide with food.1 31 Importance of informing patients that rufinamide scored tablets may be swallowed whole, broken in half, or crushed.1 31 Importance of instructing patients in proper techniques for administration of the oral suspension, including use of the bottle adapter and oral dosing syringe.1

  • When applicable, advise patients that rufinamide oral suspension does not contain lactose, gluten, or carbohydrates and is dye-free.1

  • Risk of sleepiness, difficulty with coordination, and dizziness; importance of advising patients to avoid driving or operating machinery until they gain experience with the drug's effects.1 21 Risk of additive CNS effects (e.g., sedation) if used with alcohol or other drugs that affect the CNS.1 21 34

  • Importance of informing patients not to stop taking rufinamide without first talking to their clinician since stopping the drug suddenly can cause serious problems, including seizures.1 31 34

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1 Importance of clinicians informing women about the existence of and encouraging enrollment in pregnancy registries (see Pregnancy under Cautions).1 Potential increased risk of pregnancy in women taking hormonal contraceptives; importance of discussing use of additional contraceptive methods.1 10 21

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs and dietary or herbal supplements, as well as any concomitant illnesses (e.g., hepatic disease, depression, bipolar disorder), family history of suicidality or bipolar disorder, or current diagnosis or history of familial short QT syndrome.1 31 34

  • Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)

Dosage forms and strengths

Film-coated Tablets: 200 mg (pink) and 400 mg (pink). Tablets are scored on both sides.

Oral Suspension: 40 mg/mL.

Nonclinical toxicology

13.1       Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Rufinamide was given in the diet to mice at 40, 120, and 400 mg/kg per day and to rats at 20, 60, and 200 mg/kg per day for 2 years. The doses in mice were associated with plasma AUCs 0.1 to 1 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg/day). Increased incidences of tumors (benign bone tumors (osteomas) and/or hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) were observed in mice at all doses. Increased incidences of thyroid follicular adenomas were observed in rats at all but the low dose; the low dose is < 0.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.

Mutagenesis

Rufinamide was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay or the in vitro mammalian cell point mutation assay. Rufinamide was not clastogenic in the in vitro mammalian cell chromosomal aberration assay or the in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Impairment of Fertility

Oral administration of rufinamide (doses of 20, 60, 200, and 600 mg/kg per day) to male and female rats prior to mating and throughout mating, and continuing in females up to day 6 of gestation resulted in impairment of fertility (decreased conception rates and mating and fertility indices; decreased numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, and live embryos; increased preimplantation loss; decreased sperm count and motility) at all doses tested. Therefore, a no-effect dose was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with a plasma AUC ≈ 0.2 times the human plasma AUC at the MRHD.

Side effects

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Central Nervous System Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • QT Shortening [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • �Leukopenia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Reactions in Adult and Pediatric Patients ages 3 to 17 Years of Age

In the pooled, double-blind, adjunctive therapy studies in adult and pediatric patients ages 3 to 17 years of age, the most common ( ≥ 10%) adverse reactions in BANZEL-treated patients, in all doses studied (200 to 3200 mg per day) with a higher frequency than in patients on placebo were: headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, and nausea.

Table 2 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years) with epilepsy treated with BANZEL in controlled adjunctive studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL than in patients on placebo.

At the target dose of 45 mg/kg per day for adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years), the most common ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions with an incidence greater than in placebo for BANZEL were somnolence, vomiting, and headache.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (Ages 3 to less than 17 years) in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=187) %
Placebo
(N=182) %
Somnolence 17 9
Vomiting 17 7
Headache 16 8
Fatigue 9 8
Dizziness 8 6
Nausea 7 3
Influenza 5 4
Nasopharyngitis 5 3
Decreased Appetite 5 2
Rash 4 2
Ataxia 4 1
Diplopia 4 1
Bronchitis 3 2
Sinusitis 3 2
Psychomotor Hyperactivity 3 1
Upper Abdominal Pain 3 2
Aggression 3 2
Ear Infection 3 1
Disturbance in Attention 3 1
Pruritis 3 0

Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with BANZEL (up to 3200 mg per day) in adjunctive controlled studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL than in patients on placebo. In these studies, either BANZEL or placebo was added to the current AED therapy.

At all doses studied of up to 3200 mg per day given as adjunctive therapy in adults, the most common ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions, and with the greatest increase in incidence compared to placebo, for BANZEL were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, diplopia, vision blurred, and ataxia.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Adults in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=823) %
Placebo
(N=376) %
Headache 27 26
Dizziness 19 12
Fatigue 16 10
Nausea 12 9
Somnolence 11 9
Diplopia 9 3
Tremor 6 5
Nystagmus 6 5
Blurred Vision 6 2
Vomiting 5 4
Ataxia 4 0
Upper Abdominal Pain 3 2
Anxiety 3 2
Constipation 3 2
Dyspepsia 3 2
Back Pain 3 1
Gait Disturbance 3 1
Vertigo 3 1

Discontinuation in Controlled Clinical Studies

In controlled, double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 9% of pediatric and adult patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy and 4% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy were generally similar in adults and pediatric patients.

In pediatric patients (ages 4 to less than 17 years) double-blind adjunctive clinical studies, 8% of patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy (at the recommended dose of 45 mg/kg per day) and 2% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Most Common Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation in Pediatric Patients (Ages 4 to less than 17 years) in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=187) %
Placebo
(N=182) %
Convulsion 2 1
Rash 2 1
Fatigue 2 0
Vomiting 1 0

In adult double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 10% of patients receiving BANZEL as adjunctive therapy (at doses up to 3200 mg per day) and 6% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 5.

Table 5: Most Common Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation in Adult Patients in Pooled Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials

Adverse Reaction BANZEL
(N=823) %
Placebo
(N=376) %
Dizziness 3 1
Fatigue 2 1
Headache 2 1
Nausea 1 0
Ataxia 1 0

Pediatric Patients Ages 1 to Less Than 4 Years

In a multicenter, parallel group, open-label study comparing BANZEL (45 mg/kg per day) adjunctive treatment (n=25) to the adjunctive treatment with an AED of the investigator's choice (n=11) in pediatric patients (1 year to less than 4 years of age) with inadequately controlled Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, the adverse reaction profile was generally similar to that observed in adults and pediatric patients 4 years of age and older treated with BANZEL. Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2 (8 %) BANZEL-treated patients and with a higher frequency than in the AED comparator group were: vomiting (24%), somnolence (16%), bronchitis (12%), constipation (12%), cough (12%), decreased appetite (12%), rash (12%), otitis media (8%), pneumonia (8%), decreased weight (8%), gastroenteritis (8%), nasal congestion (8%), and pneumonia aspiration (8%).

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Trials

BANZEL has been administered to 1978 individuals during all epilepsy clinical trials (placebo-controlled and open-label). Adverse reactions occurring during these studies were recorded by the investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of patients having adverse reactions, these events were grouped into standardized categories using the MedDRA dictionary. Adverse events occurring at least three times and considered possibly related to treatment are included in the System Organ Class listings below. Terms not included in the listings are those already included in the tables above, those too general to be informative, those related to procedures, and terms describing events common in the population. Some events occurring fewer than 3 times are also included based on their medical significance. Because the reports include events observed in open-label, uncontrolled observations, the role of BANZEL in their causation cannot be reliably determined.

Events are classified by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency as follows: frequent adverse events-those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events—those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare-those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Frequent: anemia. Infrequent: lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, neutropenia, iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia.

Cardiac Disorders: Infrequent: bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block first degree.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: decreased appetite, increased appetite.

Renal and Urinary Disorders: Frequent: pollakiuria. Infrequent: urinary incontinence, dysuria, hematuria, nephrolithiasis, polyuria, enuresis, nocturia, incontinence.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of BANZEL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other serious skin rashes with mucosal involvement.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Banzel (Rufinamide Tablets)

Read More »

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Rufinamide Pregnancy Warnings

This drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. US FDA pregnancy category: C Comments: -Women of childbearing potential should use contraceptive measures during treatment.

Studies in animals revealed no teratogenic effect but fetotoxicity in presence of maternal toxicity. Decreased fetal weights and increased incidences of fetal skeletal abnormalities were observed at doses associated with maternal toxicity. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to this drug, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking this drug enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. US FDA pregnancy category C: Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.

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